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Why the Federal Reserve Violates the U.S. Constitution 58:53

Inspired by the book, THE CREATURE FROM JEKYLL ISLAND by G. Edward Griffin, FIAT EMPIRE discusses the effects of the Federal Reserve System on the U.S.economy and explains why the debt-backed "fiat" money it issues is no longer Constitutional.
This 60-minute documentary is an excellent primer for the citizen or student who wants to get an understanding of how money is created and why the U.S. government has entered into a partnership with elite Wall Street banks.
Featuring Ron Paul, Edwin Vieira, G. Edward Griffin and Ted Baehr, FIAT EMPIRE is a free public service film, however you can get the Director's Cut (complete with 120-minutes of additional interviews) and/or quantities of DVDs (in the event you wish to disseminate this information to your family, friends and associates). Go to for higher quality DVDs
Lastly, follow the progress of our new documentary, ORIGINAL INTENT, at and get involved as a donor, crew
member or associate producer.
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The Council on Foreign Relations

The Council on Foreign Relations I was growing up in the Inwood section of upper Manhattan, I remember when I was about 12 or 13 years old I had my first contact with discovering what a “front” was for another business. It was called Tack’s Tackle Shop. When it first opened, it looked like just another business. The guy in the store, Tack, was selling fishing rods, live bait and an array of fishing equipment. It didn’t take long before the kids in the neighborhood figured out that perhaps there was something else going on. The live bait in the window wasn’t alive anymore and local hoods and gangster type people seemed to be going in and out, particularly in the evenings and none of them looked like fishermen. It wasn’t long before the place was raided by the NYCPD and my friends and I all watched from across the street on Sherman Avenue as “Tack” came out in handcuffs along with a bunch of other men. We were later told that Tack’s Tackle Shop had actually been a front for an illegal gambling operation.
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Monopoly Men – The Secret History of the Federal Reserve System

During the Wilson presidency, the U.S. government sanctions the creation of the Federal Reserve. Thought by many to be a government organization maintained to provide financial accountability in the event of a domestic depression, the actual business of the Fed is shrouded in secrecy.
Many Americans will be shocked to discover that the principle business of the Fed is to print money from nothing, lend it to the U.S. government and charge interest on these loans. Who keeps the interest? Good question. Find out as the connective tissue between this and other top-secret international organizations is explored and exposed. Hosted by Dean Stockwell.
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The Money Masters - History of the Federal Reserve

 The Money Masters
This film is probably one of the best history movie you will ever see in your life. In total it is about 5 hours of footage but worth every second. You will probably learn more in 5 hours of watching this film than you will learn in any college history class.
Fasten your seat belts !
How International Bankers Gained Control of America 
  "The powers of financial capitalism had a far-reaching plan, nothing less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole...Their secret is that they have annexed from governments, monarchies, and republics the power to create the world's money..."Prof. Carroll Quigley, renowned, late Georgetown macro-historian (mentioned by former President Clinton in his first nomination acceptance speech), author of Tragedy & Hope: A History of the World in Our Time This 2-volume, 3.5 hour, fast-paced, non-fiction, historical documentary explains how international bankers gained control of America.
"Banking was conceived in iniquity and was born in sin. The bankers own the earth. Take it away from them, but leave them the power to create money, and with the flick of the pen they will create enough deposits to buy it back again. However, take it away from them, and all the great fortunes like mine will disappear and they ought to disappear, for this would be a happier and better world to live in. But, if you wish to remain the slaves of bankers and pay the cost of your own slavery, let them continue to create money." - Sir Josiah Stamp, Director of the Bank of England (in the 1920s); reputed to be the 2nd wealthiest man in England at that time.

I found this documentary, which today is still very relevant. This is long but
really opens light on who really are the evil and bad people of history
and our time. Enjoy and pass this on to your friends and family. Take
into consideration the closing recommendations, they may be spot on.

Read More... The Money Masters - History of the Federal Reserve

Manufacturing Consent

Funny, provocative and surprisingly accessible, MANUFACTURING CONSENT explores the political life and ideas of Noam Chomsky, world-renowned linguist, intellectual and political activist. In a dynamic collage of new and original footage, biography, archival gems, imaginative graphics and outrageous illustrations, the film highlights Chomsky’s probing analysis of mass media.

A mammoth two-part project, MANUFACTURING CONSENT is nonetheless light on its feet, favoring a style that encourages viewers to question its own workings, as Chomsky himself encourages his listeners to extricate themselves from the “web of deceit” by undertaking a course of “intellectual self-defense.” Appearing in the film are major journalists and critics, including Bill Moyers, William F. Buckley, Jr., Tom Wolfe, Peter Jennings, Jeff Greenfield, philosopher Michel Foucault, White House reporter Sarah McClendon, New York Times editorial writer Karl E. Meyer and revisionist author Robert Faurisson.
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ZEITGEIST - Remastered / Final Edition - Full Production.

'Zeitgeist, The Movie' and 'Zeitgeist: Addendum' were created as Not-for-Profit expressions to communicate what the author felt were highly important social understandings which most humans are generally not aware of. The first film focuses on suppressed historical & modern information about currently dominant social institutions, while also exploring what could be in store for humanity if the power structures at large continue their patterns of self-interest, corruption, and consolidation.

The second film, Zeitgeist: Addendum, attempts to locate the root causesmof this pervasive social corruption, while offering a solution. This solution is notmbased on politics, morality, laws, or any other "establishment" notions of human affairs, but rather on a modern, non-superstitious based understanding of what we are and how we align with nature, to which we are a part. The work advocates a new social system which is updated to present day knowledge, highly influenced by the life long work of Jacque Fresco and The Venus Project.
Read More... ZEITGEIST - Remastered / Final Edition - Full Production.

America: Freedom to Fascism - Director's Authorized Version

America:Freedom to Fascism
 video-duration 1:51:16

Over 3 million views before Google removed it.

Read More... America: Freedom to Fascism - Director's Authorized Version

The Esoteric Agenda


Esoteric Agenda is a film by Ben Stewart, lead singer of the band Hierosonic. The film makes claims of a secret agenda being carried out by a shadowy elite and attempts to ready the public for the new world order coming December 21, 2012, synchronizing with the Mayan calendar.
Conspirators include the Illuminati, the Free Masons and the shared lineages of major American and British politicians.
The film says that global warming is a myth, the Founding Fathers were pagans, the American Revolution was intentionally designed by England and the Sons of Liberty, and that Israel was founded by an Egyptian and a Sumerian cult. The film also implies that conspiracies are involved in water fluoridation, Codex Alimentarius.

A "have to see" essential documentation about the agenda of the religious brotherhood in history and today! From Talismantic Idols: "".
Read More... The Esoteric Agenda

ALERT: Special Swine Flu Update, something you need to know

ALERT: Special Swine Flu Update, something you need to know

The realities that the CDC doesn't want you to know and how they have been using deception to make you take a dangerous vaccine that actually has not changed in 30 years since it was first manufactured. 
You can see the 60 minutes interview from 1977, over 30 years ago. This is in stark contrast to this segment. Admittedly it was done long after
the damage was done but if you look at 4:15 you will see one of the CDS consultants clearly state he warned them of this danger and yet when the CDC
head is confronted with this, he denies it.
How children vaccinations are making many children sicker through the years and disable many other. Other Important Observations on the Segment, 50 million people got vaccinated in the 70s swine flu outbreak and more died from the vaccine than from the flu itself.

Read More... ALERT: Special Swine Flu Update, something you need to know

You do NOT own your car/truck/SUV!

You do NOT own your car/truck/SUV!

Many of you "own" cars, trucks, SUVs and other things that are registered with the respective state DMVs, but guess what -- you do NOT own your car,
truck, SUV or anything that is registered with a DMV with which you get this BS "Certificate of Title". Seen that thing before? It used to be called a "pink slip", but now it is usually a multi-colored piece of paper that "proves" your ownership. But you do NOT own it! And why is that?
Read More... You do NOT own your car/truck/SUV!

#6 Mt. Sinai Standard Therapys for Fibromyalgia

Medications for Fibromyalgia
by Michelle Badash, MS

The information provided here is meant to give you a general idea about each of the medications listed below. Only the most general side effects are included, so ask your healthcare provider if you need to take any special precautions. Use each of these medications only as recommended by your healthcare provider, and according to the instructions  provided. If you have further questions about usage or side effects, contact your  healthcare provider.  Your doctor may  prescribe one or more of the following medications to help treat your fibromyalgia symptoms
Read More... #6 Mt. Sinai Standard Therapys for Fibromyalgia

"?" Who am I - Introduction

"?" Who am I
Welcome all to my Blog. read on and enjoy a work in progress. After the intro I have posted a newly found letter to the Ministry of Health and other various "Doctors" that were "treating" me. Included were medical abstracts I gathered and gleaned for their enlightenment and the furthering of their medical knowledge. Needless to say they didn't like or appreciate it at all

My story
Today my life and I, are nothing to compare with how we once were, my body and mind have often betrayed me. As with many others that I had learned to trust, value and rely upon, I have been cheated, lied to, abused and let down by them all.
I am a disabled veteran, I was drafted in to the Israel Defense Force during the 80's and have served 20+ years in various qualifications and skill levels. During my many years of service in a special unit of the combat engineers. I was involved in many aspects of firearms, ballistics, explosives and demolition, to name just a few fortes among a repertoire of aquatic and dynamic entry skills.
Discovered after many years (15 +/-) of incompetent doctor visits and hundreds if not thousands of uncaring, self righteous doctors and $. I suffer from a body full of Fibromyalgia among other pain inducing conditions caused and aggravated by 20 years military service above and beyond all possible call.
The story is longer and gets more sinister as the plot thickens, but for that u will all need to wait until I can do more writing about what I have been through and where I want to go. I also have a ton of pages to load on my sniper section and this blog.
Hope u all enjoy what I have put down, for more check out my home pages.

Mazanga Von Badman
 Home Pages
Read More... "?" Who am I - Introduction

#5 GHB gamma-hydroxy butyrate & Fibromyalgia

GHB gamma-hydroxy butyrate & Fibromyalgia

The Effects of Sodium Oxybate on Clinical Symptoms and Sleep Patterns in Patients with Fibromyalgia
Scharf MB, Baumann M, Berkowitz DV
Journal of Rheumatology. 2003;30(5):1070-1074
Scharf and colleagues report a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial of sodium oxybate in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). They evaluated the effects of sodium oxybate, a commercial form of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), on the subjective symptoms of pain, fatigue, and sleep quality and the objective polysomnographic sleep variables of alpha intrusion, slow-wave (stage 3/4) sleep, and sleep efficiency in patients with FM. They studied 24 female patients of which 18 completed the trial. The patients who dropped out were in the active medication portion of the study, and none of the side effects were considered serious events (transient episodes of headache, anxiety attack, or paresthesia).
In the intention-to-treat analysis of all patients who entered the protocol, tender-point index was decreased from baseline by 8.5, compared with an increase of 0.4 for the placebo (P = .0079) portion of the cross-over trial. Sodium oxybate was associated with relief of 29% to 33% of 6 of the 7 pain/fatigue scores (overall pain, pain at rest, pain during movement, end-of-day fatigue, overall fatigue, and morning fatigue), compared with relief of 6% to 10% with placebo (P < .005). Slow-wave (stage 3/4) sleep was significantly increased while alpha intrusion, sleep latency, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep were significantly decreased compared with placebo (P < .005). Two of the 5 subjective sleep-related variables were significantly different from placebo: morning alertness (improved by 18% with sodium oxybate, compared with 2% for placebo; P = .0033) and quality of sleep (improved by 33% and 10%, respectively; P = .0003). The investigators conclude that sodium oxybate effectively reduced the symptoms of pain and fatigue in patients with FM, dramatically reduced the sleep abnormalities of alpha intrusion, and decreased slow-wave sleep associated with the characteristic nonrestorative sleep. This study is important for rheumatologists, because fatigue and fibromyalgia are common problems in our patients and a new effective class of drugs may improve functional outcome in FM patients.
FM is associated with alpha intrusion during sleep[
1] and low growth hormone secretion.[2] Moldofsky and coworkers have demonstrated that alpha intrusion on the electroencephalogram (EEG) is a normal part of wakefulness; however, when it occurs too frequently in sleep, it is accompanied by daytime complaints of musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and altered mood.[2,3] Although the mechanisms of sleep induction maintenance in normal individuals are poorly understood,[4] they are even more complex and multifactorial in patients with FM[2] and in patients with inflammatory processes associated with proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor.[5] In normal subjects, patients with FM or inflammatory conditions, and animal models, evidence for an increasingly important role for GHB has been accumulating.[6,7]

GHB is a naturally occurring metabolite of the human nervous system, with the highest concentration in the hypothalamus and basal ganglia. A commercial form of GHB has been developed as sodium oxybate. In healthy human volunteers, sodium oxybate has been shown to promote a normal sequence of non-REM and REM sleep for 2 to 3 hours. However, it is also important to recognize that GHB has gained wide recognition in the popular press as a "recreational drug" used for date rape[8,9] as it is tasteless and creates a sense of amnesia when taken with alcohol. Thus, GHB is both a therapeutic agent and a recreational drug. It has sedative, anxiolytic, and euphoric effects. These effects are believed to be due to GHB-induced potentiation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic and dopaminergic activities, and recent studies suggest the serotonergic system might also be involved.[10] As the serotonergic system may be involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, and anxiety, the stimulation of this system may be involved in certain neuropharmacologic events induced by GHB administration.[10]
The biology of GHB may shed light on the important abnormality in sleep and the associated hypothalamic diurnal variations found in FM.[2,11] The potential importance of the study by Sharf and coworkers is that no medication has previously been shown to improve the EEG sleep arousal disorders that include phasic (alpha-delta), tonic alpha non-REM sleep disorders, or the periodic alpha cycling alternating pattern disorder.[12] Traditional hypnotic agents, while helpful in initiating and maintaining sleep and reducing daytime tiredness, do not provide restorative sleep or reduce pain. Tricyclic drugs, such as amitriptyline and cyclobenzaprine, may provide long-term benefit for improving sleep but may not have a continuing benefit beyond 1 month for reducing pain.
The basic balance between sleep and wakefulness has been an area of active interest in neurochemistry in recent years. There have been significant advances in understanding the molecular biology involved, largely based on studies of patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy. One emerging area of importance is the neuro-hormone hypocretin (orexin), whose deficiency (< 40 pg/mL) is highly associated with narcolepsy and cataplexy (89.5%).[13] In animal models of narcolepsy, the absence of hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides leads to inability to maintain wakefulness and intrusion of REM sleep into wakefulness.[14] Absence of oxyrexen-2 receptor eliminates orexin-evoked excitation of histaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus, which gate non-REM sleep onset.
In summary, the article by Scharf and colleagues demonstrates that sodium oxybate improves functional status in fibromyalgia patients. This benefit may result from a significant reduction in the sleep abnormalities (alpha intrusion and diminished slow wave sleep) associated with the nonrestorative sleep that is a critical feature of FM. According to the authors, no other compound has been reported to reduce the alpha sleep abnormality. Although this abnormality is not specific to FM and its presence has not been distinguished as a cause or effect in FM, reducing alpha intrusion appears to correlate with clinical improvement.


Roizenblatt S, Moldofsky H, Benedito-Silva AA, Tufik S. Alpha sleep characteristics in fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:222-230.
Moldofsky HK. Disordered sleep in fibromyalgia and related myofascial facial pain conditions. Dent Clin North Am. 2001;45:701-713.
Moldofsky H, Lue FA, Shahal B, Jiang CG, Gorczynski RM. Diurnal sleep/wake-related immune functions during the menstrual cycle of healthy young women. J Sleep Res. 1995;4:150-159.
Willie JT, Chemelli RM, Sinton CM, Yanagisawa M. To eat or to sleep? Orexin in the regulation of feeding and wakefulness. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2001;24:429-458.
Dickstein JB, Moldofsky H, Hay JB. Brain-blood permeability: TNF-alpha promotes escape of protein tracer from CSF to blood. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000;279:R148-R151.
Gamma hydroxybutyrate (Xyrem) for narcolepsy. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2002;44:103-105.
Xyrem approved for muscle problems in narcolepsy. FDA Consum. 2002;36:7.
Tellier PP. Club drugs: is it all ecstasy? Pediatr Ann. 2002;31:550-556.
Smalley S. The perfect crime. Newsweek. February 3, 2003:141:52.
Gobaille S, Schleef C, Hechler V, Viry S, Aunis D, Maitre M. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate increases tryptophan availability and potentiates serotonin turnover in rat brain. Life Sci. 2002;70:2101-2112.
Scharf MB, Hauck M, Stover R, McDannold M, Berkowitz D. Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on pain, fatigue, and the alpha sleep anomaly in patients with fibromyalgia. Preliminary report. J Rheumatol. 1998;25:1986-1990.
Brooks S, Black J. Novel therapies for narcolepsy. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2002;11:1821-1827.
Krahn LE, Pankratz VS, Oliver L, Boeve BF, Silber MH. Hypocretin (orexin) levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with narcolepsy: relationship to cataplexy and HLA DQB1*0602 status. Sleep. 2002;25:733-736.
Willie JT, Chemelli RM, Sinton CM, et al. Distinct narcolepsy syndromes in Orexin receptor-2 and Orexin null mice: molecular genetic dissection of Non-REM and REM sleep regulatory processes. Neuron. 2003;38:715-730.
Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on pain, fatigue, and the alpha sleep anomaly in patients with fibromyalgia.
Preliminary report.
Scharf MB, Hauck M, Stover R, McDannold M, Berkowitz D Center for Research in Sleep Disorders, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. 
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of using a gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) administered in divided doses at night in 11 patients previously diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM). 
METHODS: Subjects completed daily diaries assessing their pain and fatigue levels and slept in the sleep laboratory before and one month after initiating GHB treatment. Polysomnographic recordings were evaluated for sleep stages, sleep efficiency and the presence of the alpha anomaly in non-REM sleep. 
RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in both fatigue and pain, with an increase in slow wave sleep and a decrease in the severity of the alpha anomaly. 
CONCLUSION: Further controlled studies are needed to characterize the clinical improvement and the polysomnographic changes we observed.


GHB Report - Summary

Medical Uses
GHB is being used in other countries for many medical purposes. One of the purposes that deserves special mention is its use in France and Italy as an aid to childbirth. Its ability to calm maternal anxiety, protect against hypoxic injury to the baby, and accelerate dilation of the cervix (termed "spectacular" in one report) provide a graphic contraposition to allegations of toxicity, addiction and lethality.
It is rare to find a substance with as many applications to such a host of human maladies. Few medicines have as many beneficial actions upon the body as GHB for the prevention and treatment of debility and disease. Even fewer medicines have less side effects. The scientific and medical consensus on GHB established by conscientious laboratory and clinical investigation of the applications of GHB to enhance health and decrease suffering can only be sensationalized to a limited degree before all pretense at accuracy and honesty must be abandoned. It is unfortunate, but absolutely necessary, that we assess the rationale for SB3, SB54, and AB6 in light of this research.
GHB is fundamentally non-toxic.
Unlike alcohol, GHB has no general toxicity or organ toxicity. It is cleanly and quickly metabolized by the liver to carbon dioxide and water. Unlike alcohol, it does not kill brain cells and it does not cause cross-linking damage (an aging effect) to either tissues or skin (i.e., wrinkling). It does not cause cirrhosis of the liver. In 30 years of research, no long-term adverse effect has yet been identified.
These properties make GHB an excellent relaxation and sleep aid for pilots, truck drivers, factory workers and military personnel because of the rapidity at which it is cleared from the system and the complete lack of any lasting pharmacological effects. This can not be said for other sleep-aid drugs which are presently widely prescribed in the US.
What Effects Does GHB Cause?
In low doses (less than a gram), GHB is a mild relaxant. It causes a subtle drop in muscle tone and a mild relaxation of inhibitions (making people more sociable), very much like drinking a beer or glass of wine. This effect lasts for 1 or 2 hours.
In moderate doses (1-2 grams), GHB causes strong relaxation (mental and physical). This effect happens in 5-10 minutes on an empty stomach and 15-30 minutes on a full stomach (like with alcohol, food dramatically decreases the strength of the effect). GHB slows and deepens respiration (causing no net effect on blood gasses) and it slows heart rate, makes people passive, calm and possibly sleepy. There may be noticeable interference with articulation, motor coordination and balance. At this dose, the effects can last 2-3 hours.
In stronger doses (2-4 grams), interference with motor control and speech is more pronounced. The relaxation effect is quite strong, often causing sleepiness or sleep. The sleep induced by GHB is very deep, making it more difficult than would usually be expected to wake somebody. This state has been inappropriately labeled "coma" by some medical authorities with minimal concern for the popular perception of such an inflammatory term. Comas are technically defined as unarrousability, but the dangerous aspects of coma have to do with hypometabolism (inadequate production of biological energy) that interferes with normal mental function. During GHB-induced sleep, all the normal physiological sleep functions of the brain (stages 1, 2, 3 and 4, and REM) take place in a normal sequence.
The sleep-enhancing properties of GHB are potentially of immense value to society. GHB selectively deepens stage 3 and 4 sleep, which are most frequently impaired in the elderly. This is probably the mechanism by which GHB treats narcolepsy. This may also be the mechanism by which GHB increases growth hormone output (which normally takes place during the deepest stages of sleep). Not all people fall asleep on GHB. At the 2-4 gram dose range, GHB's effects last about 3-4 hours. At high doses (4-8 grams), powerful deep sleep is usually induced within 5-15 minutes on an empty stomach. The effect will sometimes last up to 4 hours. At extremely high doses (10-30 grams), the deep-sleep effects last for much longer periods. The highest reported GHB dose (termed a "poisoning" by the authors) involved a man who took an estimated 15 tablespoons of GHB! He woke up 24 hours later feeling groggy with a mild headache. He had no lasting effects.
GHB: Is it Lethal?
No. Everybody reported to have been "poisoned" with GHB has "fully recovered," even the man who took 15 tablespoons (50-75 grams?). There have been no long-term consequences identified in any of these cases despite close observation by attending physicians.
Although it is possible that somebody could ingest the 50-150 grams (2-5 ounces, 5 heaping tablespoons?) that might be expected to be life threatening, it is exceedingly difficult to do so. In high doses, GHB causes nausea and vomiting, which strongly limits the maximum amount that a person can consume. It is possible that a dedicated person wishing to commit suicide might be able to take a sleep-inducing dose of GHB and then, just before falling asleep, gulp down a huge amount of GHB, but this is not something which can be done accidentally. The sodium content alone (NaGHB is 17% sodium by weight) is enough to make somebody gag. It is the equivalent of trying to swallow 2 heaping tablespoons of pure table salt.
Can GHB Contribute to Death by other Causes?
We don't know. It is possible. But there is no supporting data with which to answer this question definitively. Like alcohol, GHB is contraindicated with CNS depressants. GHB should not be taken with alcohol, tranquilizers (benzodiazepines), sedatives (barbituates), or opiates (morphine, heroin, etc.). While GHB does not seriously suppress respiration by itself, CNS depressants do. Although it has not been measured, it is possible that GHB increases that respiratory suppression when combined with these drugs.  Interestingly, GHB is being used clinically to treat drug addiction and drug withdrawal symptoms for CNS depressants and opiates. It is reported to be outstandingly effective for this use.
Regarding the effect of increased levels of happiness, some US psychiatrists now prescribe GHB as an anti-depressant agent used during the day in several small doses. The reports have been noteworthy. Several report increased levels of happiness are sustained even when the person no longer has GHB in their system. Claude Rifat, a French biologist, reported, "GHB may be the first authentic anti-depressant. GHB suppresses depressed ideation with amazing rapidity.... (GHB) strongly stimulates the desire to be and remain alive despite unfavorable circumstances. Despair disappears, replaced by a feeling that life is worth living. GHB can suppress depression within hours. No conventional so called anti-depressant does that. Conventional antidepressants can takes weeks or months to alleviate suffering. GHB treatment is also very short; less than a month of treatment is usually effective, as opposed to months or years with other treatments." Increased levels of happiness may also be the result of the extended periods of deeper sleep and a more rested body.  
Mental Enhancement
Mental clarity, perception and judgment all appear to improve with low dose use. Rapid eye movement sleep and protein synthesis - processes which may be linked, and both of which are facilitated by GHB - have been correlated with periods of intensive learning [Laborit, 1972]. GHB has also been shown to stimulate the release of acetylcholine, one of the brain's own intelligence and alertness boosting chemicals [Gallimberti, 1989]. Preliminary testing suggests improved reaction times and perceptual and cognitive reflexes with low dose use of GHB. These findings of increased alertness are surprising to those accustomed to expecting GHB to act solely as a sedative. Perhaps the answer lies in the fact that nature designed this molecule.
Full report prepared by  Steven Wm Fowkes, Executive Director  Cognitive Enhancement Research Institute Post Office Box 4029, Menlo Park, CA 94026 USA 650-321-CERI Fax: 650-323-3864
Email: Web:


Category: Neurochemistry Term Paper Code: 536

GHB is a natural metabolite manufactured by the human body and by many mammalian tissues in which it functions to increase dopamine levels in the body (Mamelak 1989). GHB can be found in many organs in the body such as the kidney, heart, skeletal muscles, and fat (Chin and Kreutzer 1992). Hypothalamus and basal ganglia in the brain are found to have the highest amount of GHB (Gallimberti 1989). GHB is believed to acts as a depressant to the central nervous system (WWW1) and a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator, and high affinity brain receptor that does not act on GABA receptor sites directly (Mamelak 1989; Chin and Kreutzer 1992).
The Action of GHB In sleeping situation, GHB can facilitate non rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the stage of sleep at which there is an increased release of growth hormone (Vickers 1969; Laborit 1972; Mamelak 1989). Mamelak (1989) has provided studies that "indicate GHB reduces energy substrate consumption in both the brain and the peripheral tissues, protects these tissues from the damaging effects of anoxia or excessive metabolic demand." "GHB may function naturally in the induction and maintenance of physiological states, like sleep and hibernation, in which energy utilization is depressed. GHB may also function naturally as an endogenous protective agent when tissue energy supplies are limited" (Mamelak 1989).
Vickers (1969) states that GHB sleep is characterized by increased levels of carbon dioxide in the arteries similar to normal sleep whereas the central nervous system continues to be responsive to stimuli such as pain and other irritations. Even though not everyone can be put to sleep by GHB, "sleep is deeper and more restful during the influence of GHB, and people tend to wake up after the GHB has worn off. There was speculation that this is related to the release of stored-up dopamine" (Laborit, 1972).
GHB temporarily inhibits the dopamine release in the brain, causing an increase in dopamine storage, and later increased release of dopamine when the GHB influence wears off (Chin and Kreutzer 1992). This could explain for the feelings of increased well-being, alertness and arousal afterward or the next day which are common with the use of higher GHB dosage. Dopamine activity in the hypothalamus is known to stimulate pituitary release of growth hormone (GH), but GHB inhibits dopamine release while stimulating GH release. This might be due to the fact that GHB's GH-releasing effect takes place through an entirely different mechanism (Takahara 1977). While GH is being released, the level of prolactin also rises. GHB decreases anxiety, achieves greater intensity and frequency of uterine contractions, increases sensitivity to oxytocic drugs (used to induce contractions), preserves reflexes, prevents the lack of respiratory depression in the fetus, and protects against fetal cardiac anoxia (Vickers 1969; Laborit 1964).
GHB activates a metabolic process referred to as the "pentose pathway" which plays an important role in protein synthesis within the body (Laborit 1972). It also causes a "protein sparing" effect (Laborit 1964) which reduces the rate at which proteins in the body is broken down. Respiration would become slower and deeper. GHB also stimulates the release of acetylcholine in the brain (Gallimberti 1989). Additionally, "GHB seems to act through the endogenous opioid system, in which dynorphin levels are raised by GHB in the brain, and its metabolic and pharmacological effects can be inhibited by naloxone" (Mamelak 1989).
Benefits and Applications  GHB was found to be able to boost energy, cause pleasant and relax feelings, desire to socialize, enhance sexual experience, rejuvenate muscle and sleep, stimulate growth hormones (a steroid alternative) release (Steele and Watson 1995), relieve depression, and treat addiction. Research has been done to conclude that GHB was also primarily used to relieve and suppress withdrawal symptoms, cravings, and anxiety among alcoholics (Fadda 1989; Gallimberti 1989). "Most people experience relaxation and deep sleep within 45 minutes in response to 3.5g or less of GHB"

 Artru, A. A., Steen, P. A. and Michenfelder, J. D. Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate: Cerebral Metabolic, Vascular, and Protective Effects. Journal of Neurochemistry. 35(5): 1114-1119 (1980). Chin, M. Y., Kreutzer, R. A. and Dyer, J. E. Acute poisoning from gamma-hydroxybutyrate in California. West Journal of Medicine (United States) 156(4): 380-384 (1992). Chin, R. L. et al. Clinical course of gamma-hydroxybutyrate overdose. Annals of Emergency Medicine 31(6): 716-722 (1998). Fadda, F. et al. Suppression by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid of ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats. Alcohol and Alcoholism (Great Britain) 24(5): 447-451 (1989). Ferrara, S. D. et al. Fatality due to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and heroin intoxication. Journal of Forensic Science 40(3): 501-504 (1995). Gallimberti, L. et al. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid for treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The Lancet, 787-789 (1989). Kam, P. C. & Yoong, F. F. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: an emerging recreational drug. Anaesthesia 53(12): 1195-1198 (1998). Laborit, H. Correlations between protein and serotonin synthesis during various activities of the central nervous system (slow and desynchronized sleep, learning and memory, sexual activity, morphine tolerance, aggressiveness, and pharmacological action of sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate). Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology 3(1) (1972). Laborit, H. Sodium 4-Hydroxybutyrate. Int Journal of Neuropharmacology (Great Britain) 3: 433-452 (1964). Mamelak, M. Gammahydroxybutyrate: an endogenous regulator of energy metabolism. Neuroscience Biobehav Rev 13(4): 187-198 (1989).
Park, S. et al. GHb is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than fasting or postchallenge plasma glucose in women without diabetes. The Rancho Bernardo Study. Diabetes Care 19(5): 450-456 (1996). Steele, M. T. & Watson, W. A. Acute poisoning from gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Mo Medicine 92(7): 354-357 (1995). Takahara, J. et al. Stimulatory effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid on growth hormone and prolactin release in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinalogical Metabolism 44: 1014 (1977). Vickers, M.D. Gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid. Int Anaesthesia Clinic 7: 75-89 (1969).
Viera, A. J. & Yates, S. W. Toxic ingestion of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. South Medical Journal 92(4): 404-405 (1999).


Data on Xyrem® (sodium oxybate) presented at the American College of Rheumatology
Orange, CA - November 17, 2005
The National Fibromyalgia Association (NFA) today announced that a recent study on the narcolepsy drug Xyrem® (sodium oxybate), significantly reduces pain and improves sleep in people with fibromyalgia.
The data from an eight-week study will be presented today at the annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology in San Diego.
"These results are very exciting because - for the first time - we have results that provide evidence that a product which improves the quality of sleep during the night also has a dramatic effect on reducing pain," said the study's lead researcher, I. Jon Russell, M.D., Ph.D. associate professor of medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio and a member of the NFA's Medical Advisory Board.  "Both pain and losses of sleep are significant issues faced by patients suffering from fibromyalgia syndrome."
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex chronic pain illness that can lead to significant patient disability. The fact that there is no known cause or cure for fibromyalgia challenges patients
and healthcare professionals alike. It is estimated that FM affects approximately six to eight million Americans and 5% of the world's population. Patients with fibromyalgia suffer from a variety of symptoms ranging from stiffness, muscle spasms and body wide pain, fatigue and severe sleep disturbances.
"This study will provide significant hope for patients searching for ways to effectively manage the chronic pain of this severe disorder," said Lynne Matallana, president and founder of the National Fibromyalgia Association. "The NFA is very excited to support research that examines new treatment options for fibromyalgia." 
Xyrem, marketed by Orphan Medical, Inc., a subsidiary of Jazz Pharmaceuticals, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 2002 as the first and only treatment for cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone) in patients with narcolepsy. 

The Study

  • Significant benefit in the primary outcome variable (POV) was seen with both doses of sodium oxybate compared with placebo [illustrated by 4.5g, p=0.005].
  • Sleep quality [SLP] was improved with both dosages of oxybate [4.5g, p=0.004].
  • A significant correlation was seen between change in pain and change in sleep quality [r=0.55, p<0.001].
  • In this study, sodium oxybate was shown to be well tolerated, as illustrated by the high rate of study completion.
  • In the study, the most commonly reported adverse events included nausea and dizziness and were dose-related [4.5g, 15% and 6.7%, respectively; placebo, 9.2% and 1.5%].


Dr. Russell and his colleagues, Drs. Robert M. Bennett in Portland and Joel E. Michalek in San Antonio, conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. The centers initially recruited 188 patients [placebo, n=64; oxybate 4.5g, n=58; oxybate 6g, n=66], of whom 147 [78%] completed the trial. One group took 4.5 grams of sodium oxybate per day, while a second group took 6 grams per day. The sodium oxybate was administered orally twice a day. The POV was a composite of changes from baseline in three co-primary, self-report measures: Pain Visual Analog Scale [PVAS], captured with electronic diaries; Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire [FIQ]; and Patient Global Assessment [PGA].  Secondary outcome measures included changes in sleep quality [SLP]. The trial lasted eight weeks.

"These results show significant improvements when compared to placebo in the patient's sleep quality as well as the reduction of the patient's pain," stated Dr. Russell.



UCB also adds new marketing territories under expanded agreement --
Brussels, Belgium and Palo Alto, California – October 3rd 2006 – UCB (Euronext Brussels: UCB) and Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. today announced the signing of an expanded product license agreement for Xyrem® (sodium oxybate).
Under the agreement, UCB obtains the right to commercialize Xyrem for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome, if and when the product is approved for this indication. On September 7, 2006, Jazz Pharmaceuticals announced the initiation of its Phase III clinical development program evaluating the use of Xyrem for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.
In addition, the agreement doubles, from 27 to 54, the number of countries in which UCB has commercialization rights to Xyrem. Jazz Pharmaceuticals markets Xyrem in the United States. Commenting on the new agreement William Robinson, Executive Vice President, Global Operations, UCB said, “Fibromyalgia is an under-diagnosed, under-treated condition and we are encouraged on the initiation of the Phase III trial to evaluate Xyrem as a treatment for this chronic pain illness. Acquiring the rights to in-licence Xyrem for fibromyalgia syndrome demonstrates the ongoing commitment of UCB to satisfying unmet medical needs.” He continued, “We also look forward to making Xyrem available to narcolepsy patients in many more countries.”
Under the expanded agreement, UCB has made an upfront payment and will make milestone payments to Jazz Pharmaceuticals, subject to future clinical development and sales results. UCB will also pay royalties to Jazz Pharmaceuticals on Xyrem sales across the 54 agreed territories. “We are pleased to announce the significant expansion of our commercial partnership with UCB for Xyrem, which will bring this important therapy to patients in many more countries,” said Robert M. Myers, Chief Business Officer of Jazz Pharmaceuticals. “We look forward to continuing the investigation of the clinical utility of Xyrem for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.”

About Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is a
chronic pain illness which is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal aches, pains and stiffness, soft tissue tenderness, general fatigue and sleep disturbances. The most common sites of pain include the neck, back, shoulders, pelvic girdle and hands, but any body part can be involved.

About Xyrem in Europe1
In 2005, Xyrem became the first and only medication approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) for the treatment of cataplexy in adult patients with narcolepsy, and the product has since been launched for this indication in Denmark, Germany, Norway and the UK. In April 2006, UCB filed an application with the EMEA seeking marketing approval for the use of Xyrem in the treatment of narcolepsy in adult patients. The application spans all symptoms of narcolepsy, including excessive daytime sleepiness and fragmented night-time sleep. The most commonly reported adverse drug reactions are dizziness, nausea, and headache, all occurring in 10 % to 20 % of patients. Sodium oxybate is contraindicated in patients with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Sodium oxybate is contraindicated in patients being treated with opioids or barbiturates.
Jazz Pharmaceuticals Mark Leonard 847-267-9660 Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Matthew Fust Chief Financial Officer 650-496-3777
Read More... #5 GHB gamma-hydroxy butyrate & Fibromyalgia

#4 The Endocannabinoid System

The Endocannabinoid System 

  1. R E V I E W A R T I C L E
  2. Migraine, Fibromyalgia and Irritable Bowel
  3. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD) 
  4. Endocannabinoid mechanisms also regulate bronchial function
  5. Role of the Cannabinoid System in Pain Control and Therapeutic Implications for the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain Episodes
  6. The endocannabinoid system in the physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract
  7. Is there a role for the endocannabinoid system in the etiology and treatment of melancholic depression
Can this Concept Explain Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other Treatment-Resistant Conditions?
Read More... #4 The Endocannabinoid System

#3 THC & Fibromyalgia Cannabis and the Cannabinoids

THC & Fibromyalgia Cannabis and the Cannabinoids
  1. IACM-Bulletin of 11 June 2006
  2. Science: Cannabidiol inhibits tumour growth 
  3. Delta-9-THC based monotherapy 
  4. Medical Use of Cannabis and THC in Germany 
  5. Clinical Trial: THC Reduces Pain  
  6. Medical Uses of Cannabis 
Cannabis preparations have been used as remedies for thousands of years. The active ingredients of the hemp plant can currently also be put to use in a multitude of severe medical conditions. However, the potential medical applications of natural cannabis products or individual pharmacologically active ingredients are restricted by existing laws
IACM-Bulletin of 11 June 2006
* Science: THC reduces pain due to fibromyalgia in pilot study
* Science: Cannabidiol inhibits tumor growth in leukemia and breast cancer in animal studies
Science: THC reduces pain due to fibromyalgia in pilot study

The effect of oral THC was investigated in nine patients with fibromyalgia in a study at the Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine of the University Hospital in Mannheim. Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome of unknown origin. In the four participants who completed the three-month study pain was reduced by 67 per cent on average. All four experienced a pain reduction by more than 50 per cent.

All pain medication was stopped 3 weeks prior to the investigation. In the study, patients received a daily oral dose of 2.5–15 mg THC. Starting with 2.5 mg the dosage was increased weekly by 2.5 mg THC, as long as no severe side effects were reported. Once a week, 24 hours after the last THC medication and a day before any dose increase, an electrical induced pain was caused. Moreover, the pain intensity was daily recorded by means of a numeric pain scale with the endpoints 0 (no pain) and 10 (maximum pain imaginable).

Five of the nine participants terminated the study before reaching the maximum dose of 15 mg due to severe side effects, primarily sedation, dizziness, fatigue or continuous tiredness. The experimentally induced pain was significantly reduced by THC in a dose of 10 and 15 mg. Daily recorded pain intensity was reduced from 8.1 on average at the beginning of the study to 2.8 after three months.

(Source: Schley M, Legler A, Skopp G, Schmelz M, Konrad C, Rukwied R. Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief. Curr Med Res Opin 2006;22(7):1269-1276 [electronic publication ahead of print])

Science: Cannabidiol inhibits tumour growth in leukaemia and breast cancer in animal studies
Italian researchers investigated the anti-tumour effects of five natural cannabinoids of the cannabis plant (cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabidiol-acid and THC-acid) in breast cancer. Cannabidiol (CBD) was the most potent cannabinoid in inhibiting the growth of human breast cancer cells that had been injected under the skin of mice. CBD also reduced lung metastases deriving from human breast cancer cells that had been injected into the paws of the animals.

Researchers found that the anti-tumour effects of CBD were caused by induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death). They concluded that their data "support the further testing of cannabidiol and cannabidiol-rich extracts for the potential treatment of cancer."

These observations are supported by investigations of US scientists who found out that exposure of leukaemia cells to CBD led to a reduction in cell viability and induction of apoptosis. In living animals CBD caused a reduction in number of leukaemia cells. The scientists noted that CBD "may be a novel and highly selective treatment for leukemia."


Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief
Authors: Schley, Marcus1; Legler, Andreas1; Skopp, Gisela2; Schmelz, Martin1; Konrad, Christoph1; Rukwied, Roman1 Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion, Volume 22, Number 7, July 2006, pp. 1269-1276(8)

Abstract: Objective:

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by a distinct mechanical hyperalgesia and chronic pain. Recently, cannabinoids have been demonstrated as providing anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperalgesic effects in animal and human studies. Here, we explored in nine FM patients the efficacy of orally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on electrically induced pain, axon reflex flare, and psychometric variables.

Research design and methods: Patients received a daily dose of 2.5-15 mg of delta-9-THC, with a weekly increase of 2.5 mg, as long as no side effects were reported. Psychometric variables were assessed each week by means of the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Medical outcome survey-short form (MOS SF-36), the Pain Disability Index (PDI), and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). In addition, patients recorded daily, in a diary, their overall pain intensity on a numeric scale. Each week, pain and axon reflex flare was evoked experimentally by administration of high intensity constant current pulses (1 Hz, pulse width 0.2 ms, current increase stepwise from 2.5-12.5 mA every 3 minutes) delivered via small surface electrodes, attached to the volar forearm skin.

Main outcome measures: Daily pain recordings by the patient, experimentally induced pain, and axon reflex flare recorded by a laser Doppler scanner.

Results: Five of nine FM patients withdrew during the study due to adverse side effects. Delta-9-THC had no effect on the axon reflex flare, whereas electrically induced pain was significantly attenuated after doses of 10-15 mg delta-9-THC (p < 0.05). Daily-recorded pain of the FM patients was significantly reduced (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated that a generalized statement that delta-9-THC is an analgetic drug cannot be made. However, a sub-population of FM patients reported significant benefit from the delta-9-THC monotherapy. The unaffected electrically induced axon reflex flare, but decreased pain perception, suggests a central mode of action of the cannabinoid.

Document Type: Research article DOI: 10.1185/030079906X112651
Affiliations: 1: Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Medicine Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany 2: Institute of Forensic Toxicology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Survey on the Medical Use of Cannabis and THC in Germany
Page Range: 17 - 40
DOI: 10.1300/J175v03n02_03
Copyright Year: 2003

In recent years, a number of open patient interviews and standardized surveys have been conducted to gain more information concerning subjective experiences with the use of cannabis products in a multitude of medical conditions. After a first effort in 1999 (Schnelle et al. 1999), a second anonymous survey was conducted among patients in the German speech area of Europe concerning use of natural illegal cannabis products and THC, a natural cannabinoid that may be prescribed by German doctors since 1998, and that is also manufactured synthetically. Questionnaires were distributed to the members of the Association for Cannabid as Medicine (ACM) and additional persons interested in participating. One hundred eighty-two completed questionnaires were sent to the Institute for Oncological and Immunological Research and the ACM, of whom 17 were excluded because these participants apparently did not suffer from severe diseases. Of the 165 respondents included in the final analysis, 61.2% were male and 38.8% were female. Median age was 40.3 ± 12.4 years, with a range of 16 to 87 years. Twenty-two participants did not use cannabis products for therapeutic purposes. The main reasons were fear of criminal prosecution, the assumption that their doctor will not prescribe THC or a refusal of the doctor to do so. Among the 143 participants with cannabis or THC experience, the main diagnosis groups were neurological symptoms (28%) and painful conditions (25.3%), followed by diseases with mainly gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea and appetite loss (14%). The most frequent single diagnoses were multiple sclerosis (17.5%), Tourette syndrome (11.9%), HIV/AIDS (10.5%), migraine/headaches (4.9%), chronic pain that was not described more precisely (4.2%), hepatitis C (3.5%), depression, sleep disorders, spinal cord injury, and back pain (2.8% each), asthma, allergy, fibromyalgia, menstraul pain, and epilepsy (2.1% each). Average daily THC doses were 14.9 ± 9.5 mg, ranging from 4 to 35 mg. Doses of natural cannabis products (marijuana, hashish) were 1.3 ± 0.9 grams on average (range: 0.02-3.5g). The drugs were inhaled by 55.9%, employed orally by 16.8%, and 23.1% use both routes of administration. The cited conditions were much improved by cannabis or THC in 74.8%. An additional 13.3% of patients noted a small improvement, and 2.1% noted no improvement. Others were unsure whether it improved their condition (7.0%), or did not answer the question (2.8%). High satisfaction was reported in 54.4%, 28.0% were satisfied, 14.0% were partly satisfied and 2.1% were not satisfied, while 1.4% did not answer. No side effects were experienced in 73.4%, while 22.4% reported moderate side effects, and 4.2% did not respond. About three-quarters made statements to the consequences of discontinuation of use with regard to withdrawal symptoms. Of these, 67.6% reported no withdrawal symptoms; in 17.6% these symptoms were mild, and in 2.8% they were more severe, while 12.0% reported that they coould not evaluate the severity of withdrawal symptoms. Fifty-three participants noted that they had asked their doctor to prescribe THC. In 54.8% the doctor was willing to do so, but in more than half of the cases (45.9%), the health insurance companies refused to pay for the treatment. There was no association between the reaction of the doctor or of the health insurance and the diagnosis.

Most of the participants who reported a refusal by their doctor or the health insurance used cannabis products in the previous month. Experience with both the medical use of THC and natural cannabis products was reported by 16 participants. There were no clear differences between both drugs with regard to side effects and medicinal efficacy. In conclusion, this survey adds to an increasing number of patient reports of successful and well-tolerated medical uses of cannabis products in a multitude of conditions. Furthermore, it reflects the division of German doctors and health insurances on the issue.

Journal Title:Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics:
Studies in Endogenous, Herbal, and Synthetic Cannabinoids
official journal of the International Association for Cannabis as Medicine
Volume: 3 Issue: 2
ISSN: 1529-9775 Pub Date: 3/1/2003
Franjo Grotenhermen MD, affiliated with the nova-Institut, Goldenbergstraße 2, D-50354 Hürth, Germany,
Martin Schnelle MD, Affiliated with the Institute for Oncological and Immunological Research , Hardenbergstrasse 19, Berlin , Germany ,

Clinical Trial: THC Reduces Pain In Fibromyalgia Patients
June 22, 2006 - Mannheim, Germany

Mannheim, Germany: Oral administration of THC significantly reduces both chronic and experimentally induced pain in patients with fibromyalgia, according to clinical trial data to be published in the forthcoming issue of the journal Current Medical Research and Opinion. The study is the first-ever clinical trial assessing the efficacy of cannabinoids in the treatment of fibromyalgia.

Investigators at Germany's University of Heidelberg assessed the analgesic effects of oral THC in nine patients with fibromyalgia over a 3-month period. Subjects in the trial were administered daily doses of 2.5 to 15 mg of THC, but received no other pain medication during the trial. Among those participants who completed the trial, all reported a significant reduction in daily recorded pain and electronically induced pain, investigators found.

"All patients who completed the delta-9-THC therapy ... experienced pain relief of more than 50 percent," authors concluded. Investigators recommended that follow up placebo-control trials be conducted assessing the use of cannabinoids on fibromyalgia. Previous trials have shown that both naturally occurring and endogenous cannabinoids hold analgesic qualities, particularly in the treatment of cancer pain and neuropathic pain, both of which are poorly treated by conventional opiates.

Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and multiple tender points in the neck, spine, shoulders, and hips. An estimated 3 to 6 million Americans are afflicted by the disease, which is often poorly controlled by standard pain medications.

For more information, please contact Paul Armentanot (202) 483-5500. Full text of the study, "Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief," will be available in the forthcoming issue of Current Medical Research and Opinion.

The disease is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and multiple tender points in the neck, spine, shoulders, and hips. An estimated 3 to 6 million Americans are afflicted by fibromyalgia, which is often poorly controlled by standard pain medications.
Fibromyalgia patients frequently self-report using cannabis therapeutically to treat symptoms of the disease,[1-2] and physicians – where legal to do so – often recommend the use of cannabis to treat musculoskeletal disorders.[3-4] To date however, only one clinical trial is available in the scientific literature assessing the use of cannabinoids to treat the disease.

Writing in the July 2006 issue of the journal Current Medical Research and Opinion, investigators at Germanyʹs University of Heidelberg evaluated the analgesic effects of oral THC in nine patients with fibromyalgia over a 3-month period. Subjects in the trial were administered daily doses of 2.5 to 15 mg of THC, but received no other pain medication during the trial. Among those participants who completed the trial, all reported a significant reduction in daily recorded pain and electronically induced pain.[5]

Previous clinical and preclinical trials have shown that both naturally occurring and endogenous cannabinoids hold analgesic qualities,[6-7] particularly in the treatment of cancer pain [8] and neuropathic pain, [9] both of which are poorly treated by conventional opioids. As a result, some experts have suggested that cannabinoid agonists would be applicable for the treatment of chronic pain conditions unresponsive to opioid analgesics such as fibromyalgia, and they theorize that the disease may be associated with an underlying clinical deficiency of the endocannabinoid system.[10]

[1] Swift et al. 2005. Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes. Harm Reduction Journal 4: 2-18. [2] Ware et al. 2005. The medicinal use of cannabis in the UK: results of a nationwide survey. International
Journal of Clinical Practice 59: 291-295. [3] Dale Gieringer. 2001. Medical use of cannabis: experience in California. In: Grotenhermen and Russo (Eds).
Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential. New York: Haworth Press: 153-
170. [4] Gorter et al. 2005. Medical use of cannabis in the Netherlands. Neurology 64: 917-919. [5] Schley et al. 2006. Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally inducedpain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief. Current Medical Research and Opinion 22: 1269-1276. [6] Burns and Ineck. 2006. Cannabinoid analgesia as a potential new therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic pain.
The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 40: 251-260. [7] David Secko. 2005. Analgesia through endogenous cannabinoids. CMAJ 173: [8] Radbruch and Elsner. 2005. Emerging analgesics in cancer pain management. Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs 10: 151171. [9] Notcutt et al. 2004. Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: Results from 34 ʹN of 1ʹ studies. Anaesthesia 59: 440. [10] Ethan Russo. 2004. Clinical Endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): Can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and other treatment-resistant conditions? Neuroendocrinoogy Letters 25: 31-39.

Medical Uses of Cannabis
Ailments for which the medical use of cannabis may be beneficial include: Addiction, Arthritis, Appetite Loss, Nausea, Cancer Chemotherapy, AIDS Wasting Syndrome, Nausea From Cancer, Chemotherapy, Glaucoma, Multiple Sclerosis, Depression, Parkinson’s Disease, Movement Disorders, Dystonia, Asthma, Brain Injury/Stroke, Crohn's Disease, Ulcerative Depression, Mental Illness, Epilepsy, Fibromyalgia, High Blood Pressure/ Hypertension, Migraine, Nail Patella Syndrome, Schizophrenia, Tourette's Syndrome.

Below are notes on some of the most common medical uses of cannabis.

Arthritis: In 1994 the ‘Times’ reported; ‘The demand for Cannabis among British pensioners has stunned doctors, police and suppliers. The old people use the drug to ease the pain of such ailments as arthritis and rheumatism. Many are running afoul of the law for the first time in their lives as they try to obtain suppliers.’ Arthritis affects the joints and surrounding areas, including muscles, membrane linings and cartilage. It causes painful inflammation, heat, swelling, pain, redness of skin and tenderness in the affected areas. Cortisone-type drugs provide dramatic pain relief for short periods but decrease in effectiveness if used over time. The side effects of these drugs include nausea, restlessness, insomnia, dizziness, headache, depression and mood swings, irregular heartbeat and menstruation problems. Several cannabinoids have both analgesic (pain-relieving) and anti-inflammatory effects, a combination particularly helpful for arthritic people. Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main active ingredients in cannabis is a very effective anti-inflammatory agent. Cannabis can be smoked or eaten to relieve the general pain, inflammation and discomfort of arthritis. Cannabis poultices can be applied topically to troubled areas. Cannabis in alcohol or as a cream can also be rubbed on the skin.

Appetite Loss, Nausea, Cancer Chemotherapy, AIDS Wasting Syndrome: One of the most outstanding medical values of cannabis is the role it can play in restoring a person’s relationship to food. Cannabis is remarkably powerful in combating nausea and vomiting, making it possible to consume food and hold it down. It is also an extraordinary stimulant of appetite itself; a condition known by cannabis users as ‘the munchies’. Conditions characterized by nausea, vomiting, appetite problems and severe weight loss include AIDS Wasting Syndrome, kidney failure, tuberculosis, hyperemesis gravidarum (magnified form of morning sickness) and anorexia and the side effects of chemotherapy.

Nausea From Cancer Chemotherapy: Nausea and vomiting, which can last for days after a single treatment and be so violent as to threaten to break bones and rupture the aesophagus, are common side effects of the chemotherapies used in treating cancer. Many patients develop such an aversion to the site or odor of food that they stop eating altogether and lose the will to live. Up to 40% of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy do not respond to the standard treatment for preventing vomiting. These use expensive ‘antiemetics’ drugs such as ‘Zofran’ (which must be administered by intravenous drip and cost £250+ a treatment). ‘Marinol’ which uses THC was approved after much resistance in the USA in 1986. It is effective in many cases where other drugs have failed. Smoking or eating cannabis also seems to provide relief where standard treatments fail. The effectiveness of cannabis in treating nausea and vomiting from cancer chemotherapy is dose-related. The higher the blood levels of THC, the more complete the relief of vomiting. Lester Grinspoon, M.D. has calculated that using cannabis to treat chemotherapy nausea would cost about one percent as much as treatment with Zofran.

Glaucoma: The usual treatment is eye drops containing drugs called ‘beta-blockers’. While effective they can cause depression, exacerbate asthma, decrease heart rate and increase danger of heart failure. The most common form of glaucoma, ‘open angle glaucoma’ happens when the channels that carry fluid out of the eyeball gradually become narrower causing the intra ocular pressure to increase slowly over time, damaging the optic nerve that relays signals from the eye to the brain and resulting in blindness. Fortunately, it can be treated with cannabis. Cannabis relieves symptoms by reducing intra ocular pressure, thereby slowing down the progress of the condition, sometimes bringing it to a complete halt. The pressure relieving effects achieved by using cannabis last for four to five hours.

Multiple Sclerosis: Multiple Sclerosis destroys the sheathing that protects nerve fibres, interfering with the function of the nervous system. The victim suffers painful muscle spasms, loss of coordination, tremors, paralysis, insomnia, mood swings and depression, blurred vision, impotence, loss of bladder control and more. There are three types; fairly mild and does not get worse over time; one which gets worse slowly; and one which gets rapidly worse once it appears. Many suffers end up using wheelchairs. Modern medicine has failed to find an effective treatment for the overall condition although various drugs give short-term relief of different symptoms. Valium or similar tranquilizers are used to treat muscle spasms but have there associated side effect of addiction, and doses often have to be increased sharply over time (good for profits if nothing else). MS patients who use cannabis report a soothing of the painful muscle spasms and improved muscle coordination. Some are able to walk unaided when they were previously unable to do so. It also helps blurred vision, tremors, loss of bladder control, insomnia and depression.

Depression: Depression can be a very depressing state of mind to be in, and can include pessimism, hopelessness, despair, loss of interest in life, boredom and sadness. Symptoms include insomnia or excessive sleeping, loss of appetite or over eating, decreased sex drive, constipation, listlessness, chronic tiredness, difficulty with concentration and decision making, and irritability. About 30% of patients with depression respond badly to antidepressants or find the side effects intolerable. A significant difference between the two is that the mood lifting effects of cannabis occur within a few minutes of smoking or about an hour after ingesting while pharmaceutical antidepressants usually take several days or weeks to kick in - and the same or longer to safely get off them.

Movement Disorders: Diseases characterised by impaired motor function and difficulties with muscle control. Conventional drug treatments are not very effective and can have very bad side effects. Cannabis has proved to be surprisingly helpful. Research indicates that the reason may have something to do with the presence of receptors for cannabinoids in the ‘basal ganglia’, a part of the nervous system involved in the coordination of movement.

Parkinson’s Disease: A movement disorder closely associated with the aging process, thought to be caused by abnormalities in the ‘basal ganglia’ and deterioration of the brain systems associated with the brain chemical ‘dopamine’ which is involved in movement and motor control. Levels of dopamine decline with ageing. Conventional treatments include ‘Deprenyl’, ‘Bromocriptine’ and ‘L-dopa’, all drugs which increase levels of dopamine in the nervous system. ‘L-dopa’, the most frequently used of these treatments, may actually increase damage to parts of the brain involved in dopamine production. It does not slow down the progression of the disease or increase life expectancy. Its side effects include most of the symptoms of the disease it is intended to treat! These include nausea, loss of libido, vomiting, irritability, insomnia, loss of appetite, headache, dystonias, and muscle spasms. Cannabis has demonstrated a beneficial impact on all of them. However ‘Cannabidiol’ one of the active agents of cannabis may aggravate the ‘hypokinesia’, or overall lack of movement associated with Parkinson’s.

Dystonia: Dystonias are a group of movement disorders characterized by abnormal body movements and postures. Their causes can be a side effect of medicines used to treat psychotic conditions and Parkinson’s disease. Cannabis has been shown to be helpful for dystonia in studies with both humans and animals when conventional drugs are rarely effective and have dangerous side effects. Cannabis used in conjunction with standard medications can help achieve a more effective overall treatment.

Chronic Pain: One of the most difficult problems for health practitioners to treat. Conventional medicine uses opiate-type drugs such as codeine. Opiates are highly addictive and dosages have to be increased to remain effective, increasing the addiction. Much addiction has its roots in pain being self medication conscious or not. Non-addictive painkillers are also available, but they are often not strong enough to provide adequate pain relief! The painkilling properties of Cannabis (THC) are comparable to those of codeine and other commonly used painkillers without the side effects or risk of addiction. Studies have found that the dose of THC required to kill pain was far smaller than the amount of codeine required to give the same level of relief. Amazingly the same dosage of cannabis has a consistently stronger painkilling effect for experienced users of cannabis than for inexperienced users. This is the opposite of a development of tolerance! A single dose can relieve pain for several hours. Eating is often more effective than smoking and the effects last longer. However, the use of cannabis and opiates is not necessarily an either-or issue. If cannabis is used in an ongoing regime of medication, opiates could be added or substituted during periods when pain levels rise. Conversely, if opiates are used as the basis of the ongoing regime, cannabis could be added when pain levels rise , avoiding the need to increase the dosages of opiates being used and the associated dangers.

Diabetes: Insulin is excreted from the beta islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin, a natural body chemical, floods the body after a sugar-rich meal and causes various cell types to dramatically increase their uptake of glucose, a common sugar. The effect of insulin is to reduce the levels of glucose in the bloodstream. Diabetes can result from the body’s inability to produce sufficient quantities of insulin or from an inability to respond properly to the insulin that is produced. In either case, many of the clinical effects of diabetes stem from the deleterious effects of high blood sugar. There is some anecdotal evidence that cannabis lowers blood sugar. AIDS and cancer patients, among other cannabis users, often report an increase in appetite after consuming cannabis, and a few reports indicate that smoking cannabis can lower blood sugar in diabetics. A study (Tracy Blevins phd) was undertaken to determine whether this effect can be detected using an easily available over the counter blood glucose testing kit.

A morbidly obese man had a non-healing wound on his lower leg and was experiencing confusion and sleepiness after large meals. He suspected diabetes as the culprit, and, since smoking a large cannabis cigarette after large meals seemed to alleviate some of his symptoms, his blood sugar was tested before, immediately after and multiple times during the hour following a large meal rich in protein, fats and both complex and simple carbohydrates.

The results were dramatic and raised some interesting research questions. Before and immediately after the meal, the patient’s blood sugar was in the normal range, but within a few minutes increased by 80 mg/dl and remained at this high level for almost an hour. Then he smoked a 1 gram cannabis cigarette, and his blood sugar levels fell by 40 points almost instantly. This represents a full 50% of the abnormal increase in blood sugar. The drop of blood which was taken at the exact moment when he was self reporting a ‘high’ were the lowest in blood sugar, a good indication that the blood sugar lowering was caused by the ingestion of cannabis. Curiously, after a few minutes, his blood sugar started to increase again. It might be that smoking cannabis helped to reduce his blood sugar, but only transiently. Would a longer acting cannabinoid suppress blood sugar levels more efficiently?

Further studies are necessary to confirm this effect and to determine the parameters of the effect: the amount of cannabis needed, the time course of the effect, and also whether different types of cannabis show more or less blood sugar lowering. Also, in another non-diabetic patient, blood sugar was decreased by 11%, pointing to the possibility that cannabis can lower blood sugar in a non-disease state. Could it be that we have finally discovered the biological mechanism of “the munchies”?
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